All over the world, water sources are being polluted by wastewater. Municipal, industrial, and agricultural operations are under increasing pressure to meet local, federal, and even international discharge standards for wastewater treatment. In the U.S., recent implementation of federal regulations, particularly ammonia discharge, as well as upcoming new regulations for phosphorous and nitrogen removal will necessitate upgrades to current facilities, many of which are operated as lagoon-type systems. There are costly advanced technologies, with high energy use, available to treat the discharge from these facilities, but because of the current domestic financial environment, funding for the U.S. wastewater infrastructure is a significant fiscal issue. A less costly, energy efficient, and effective approach would essentially revolutionize wastewater treatment and solve an insurmountable problem worldwide.